Capital: Ashgabat HDI: 0.688 (109th)
GDP (PPP): $93.271 Billion
Currency: Turkmen New Manat
Turkmenistan is a country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west. Turkmenistan has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times, Merv was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road, a caravan route used for trade with China until the mid-15th century. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Turkmenistan possesses the world’s fourth largest reserves of natural gas resources. Most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert. Since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge.
Turkmenistan Economy 2016
Turkmenistan is largely a desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and sizeable gas and oil resources.
An overview of the economy from the Asian Development Bank
Industry Trends & Business Climate
Turkmenistan: Economy | Asian Development Bank
Turkmenistan’s economic growth in the first half of 2015 was reported at 9.1%, lower than in the first half of 2014. Growth was driven by expansion in industry by 6.2%, construction by 12.1%, agriculture by 11%, and services by 11.6%.
Establishing a Presence
Turkmenistan company registration
A consultant’s 10 steps to incorporate a company in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan Corporate – Taxes
Branches of foreign legal entities are subject to a 20% CIT, whereas Turkmen legal entities are subject to an 8% CIT (or 2% CIT in cases where the company qualifies as a small or medium enterprise).
Current rates of profits tax are 8% for non‐governmental residents of Turkmenistan 20% of the profits for other legal entities 15% on dividends and other distributions to shareholders of legal entities
Turkmenistan Individual – Taxes
The general PIT rate is 10%, which applies to employment income, business and professional income, interest, royalties, income from immovable property, and capital gains. The tax is generally withheld at source.
Turkmenistan Sales Tax Rate | 2014-2016
The Sales Tax Rate in Turkmenistan stands at 20 percent.
Comprehensive Information on Turkmenistan Visa Requirements
Turkmenistan visa | Caravanistan
Getting a Turkmenistan tourist visa is not possible withoutbooking a tour. Getting a transit visa might require a long wait, but you do not need to book a tour and do not need visa support (LOI). A transit visa allows for a visit of 3 to 7 days.
Transport in Turkmenistan – Lonely Planet
A guide to the best air and land transportation in Turkmenistan
Telecommunications in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan’s telecommunications services are considered to be the least developed of all the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries.
Turkmenistan – Telecoms, Mobile, Broadband and Digital
Turkmenistan’s telecommunications market in this poor and predominantly rural country is relatively small. Its telecom services were considered to be the least developed of all the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries when they took shape.
Tips on getting to and getting around Turkmenistan from real travelers and locals.
Turkmenistan Employment & Labor Law News
News items relating to labor law and regulations in Turkmenistan
Climate of the World: Turkmenistan
The climate of Turkmenistan is strictly continental and very dry, since the country is not surrounded from an ocean. The summer is very hot and mostly dry, but sometimes local cloudbursts and thunderstorms can occur, which can sometimes be quite heavy.
Cost of Living in Turkmenistan
Average prices of more than 40 products and services in Turkmenistan. Prices of restaurants, food, transportation, utilities and housing are included
Turkmenistan – Culture, Customs & Etiquette
Guide to travel, doing business, and studying in Turkmenistan – culture, greetings, gestures,etiquette, taboos, negotiations, gift-giving, and more.
Demographics of Turkmenistan
This site lists the demographic features of the population of Turkmenistan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity
Turkmenistan Population – Demographics
Turkmenistan Weather, Climate and Geography
Turkmenistan has an extreme continental climate: temperatures in Ashgabat vary between 46°C (114°F) in summer and -5°C (23°F) in winter
Turkmenistan travel advice – GOVUK
Turkmenistan travel advice - GOVUK
Travel and safety advice from the UK government
Turkmenistan: U.S. Department of State
See “Safety and Security” on this site
Education in Turkmenistan – Wikipedia
A brief summary of primary, secondary and university education in Turkmenistan
UNICEF Turkmenistan – Education
A summary of the development of primary education in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan Public Holidays 2016 and 2017
Turkmenistan’s complete list of public holidays for 2016 and 2017.
Turkmenistan Public Holidays 2016
A listing of national, bank and public holidays
Customs: Regulations, Export-Import
Turkmenistan Customs regulations and procedures for importing and exporting goods at border.
OEC – Turkmenistan (TKM) Exports, Imports
Import/Export profile of Turkmenistan
Housing and Rentals
The 10 Best Turkmenistan Hotels – TripAdvisor
Find 714 traveler reviews, candid photos, and prices for 22 hotels in Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan Hotels, Hostels & Accommodation – Lonely Planet
Read 20 hotel reviews and book from 0 cheap hotels, hostels and B&Bs at Lonely Planet
Turkmenistan Travel Guide – VirtualTourist
223 real travel reviews, tips, and photos from real travelersand locals in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan Travel Guide and Travel Information
Expert Turkmenistan travel guide including detailed information about everything you need to know about Turkmenistan.